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This research study assessed the role of principals in improving teacher professional development in public secondary schools in Makueni County, Kenya. The study was guided by Role theory and utilized a descriptive research design. The target population comprised of 3,364 teachers from 392 public secondary schools. The sample size of 357 was determined using Nassiuma's (2000) formula, which included 119 headteachers and 238 teachers. The data was collected through the administration of questionnaire. Pilot study was conducted to determine research instrument reliability and validity. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables. The findings revealed that secondary school principals in Makueni County possessed a variety of supervisory competencies, including managerial (32%), evaluative (23%), interpersonal (19%), motivational (15%), and disciplinary skills (15%). These proficiencies enable principals to foster collaborative relationships with staff, cultivate a supportive school community, effectively manage human resources, and ensure adherence to Ministry of Education guidelines. Furthermore, the study identifies key additional abilities acquired through ongoing education and training, such as conflict resolution (8%), record-keeping (5%), and pedagogical expertise (1%). These skills empower principals to uphold teaching standards, monitor classroom performance, and optimize the utilization of instructional resources. Principals (78.8%) actively engage in organizing internal seminars, workshops, and collaborative sessions, underscoring their commitment to a culture of continuous learning and hence professional growth among teachers. The study highlights the significance of principals' involvement in identifying and resolving common classroom challenges, advocating for access to instructional materials, encouraging participation in professional conferences, and promoting teacher-to-teacher mentoring. However, the study also emphasizes the need for targeted improvements. Some principals exhibit deficiencies in specific supervisory abilities, notably financial management, and information technology skills. To address these gaps, the study recommends ongoing in-service training and capacity-building initiatives for principals, leveraging partnerships with educational institutions and relevant stakeholders.
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