Authors are typically defined as those who have contributed sufficiently to a scientific paper to be credited in the publication's byline. In addition, several professional and research funding agencies and academic institutions provide such direction. Principles, customs, and practises pertaining to authorship vary among cultures, scientific disciplines, and occasionally within subjects. This article intends to summarise common authorship rules applicable across scientific disciplines.
Authors listed on an article must meet all of the following criteria:
1. Contributed significantly to the work reported, whether in idea, study design, execution, data collection, analysis, or interpretation, or in all of these areas.
2. Have drafted or written the piece, or substantially revised or reviewed it critically.
3. Agreed upon the publication to which the essay will be submitted.
4. Reviewed and approved all versions of the piece prior to submission, during revision, the final version accepted for publication, and any substantial changes made during proofreading.
5. Agree to accept responsibility and accountability for the article's content and to share responsibility for resolving any concerns over the accuracy or integrity of the published work.
If multiple authors contributed to an article, you will choose one to be the corresponding author. This individual will handle all article-related contact and execute the publishing agreement on behalf of all authors. The corresponding author is responsible for confirming the accuracy of all authors' contact information. You should all concur on the arrangement of your names in the article. Please verify that your affiliations are accurate, as detailed below.
If you are a named co-author, this means that you:
1. Contributed significantly to the work described.
2. This could pertain to the conceptualization, study design, implementation, data collection, analysis, or interpretation, or all of these. Have drafted or written the piece, or have substantially revised or reviewed it critically.
3. Agreed upon the publication to which the essay will be submitted.
4. Reviewed and approved all versions of the piece prior to submission, during revision, the final version accepted for publication, and any substantial changes made during proofreading.
5. Agree to accept ownership and accountability for the article's content. Participate in resolving any questions regarding the truth or veracity of the published content.
1. If you need to change the co-authors for whatever reason after the journal has accepted your paper, you should write to the editor of the journal and provide a detailed explanation for the change. This letter must be signed by all authors, including those whose contributions are being added or removed. The editor must approve to the modification.
2. If the corresponding author changes before the article is published (i.e., a co-author becomes the corresponding author), please confirm with the journal editor and production editor that both authors agree to the change.
3. Changes requested to the co-authors or corresponding authors after publication of the paper will be reviewed in accordance with the authorship criteria provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Corresponding authors
Corresponding authors are responsible for ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors, and that all authors receive the submission, all substantive correspondence with editors, and the full reviews, verifying that all data, figures, materials (including reagents), and code, even those developed or provided by other authors, comply with the transparency and reproducibility standards of
This responsibility includes;
a) Ensuring that original data/original figures/materials/code on which the submission is based are preserved according to best practises in the field so they can be reanalysed;
b) Confirming that data/figures/materials/code presentation accurately reflects the original; and
c) Anticipating and minimising obstacles to sharing data/materials/code described in the work.
The corresponding author should manage these standards across the author group and ensure compliance with publication best practises. To deter ghost-writing, corresponding authors must disclose whether the manuscript benefited from editorial services that, if unrecognised, could represent a conflict of interest. Examples include using a biased editor or a technical writer who deserves authorship credit. Include a statement in the acknowledgements, describe the effort in the techniques section, or add an author. Corresponding authors should explain why authors were removed or added from earlier versions. The corresponding author must ensure that all authors (or group/laboratory leaders in large collaborations) have certified the author list and contribution description: that all authors who deserve authorship credit are identified, no authors are listed who do not deserve authorship credit, and author contributions, where provided, are expressed accurately. The editors will address any authorship disputes according to COPE criteria.
Changes in authorship
All authors must agree to any changes in authorship before or after publication. The corresponding author must receive confirmation from all co-authors and explain why the modification was necessary. If authorship changes after publication, a post-publication notification will be issued. Authorship modifications must meet our requirements.
Any individuals who contributed to the work but do not fit the criteria for authorship should be listed by name and affiliation in a "Acknowledgments" section. The authors must ask permission to identify people. Permission includes sharing content so others can check context.
Author name changes on published articles
An author may change their name during their career and want to update their published articles without a correction notice. BAP will update journal articles with an author's full or partial name change without a correction notice. Pronouns in author bios and declaration statements will be adjusted if needed.
The journal will change the article's metadata when you request a name change.
• Update HTML and PDF versions of the article. Third party submissions All manuscripts must be submitted by an author and may not be submitted by a third party. Authorship and AI tools Authors who use AI tools in the writing of a manuscript, production of images or graphical elements of the paper, or in the collection and analysis of data, must be transparent in disclosing in the Materials and Methods (or similar section) of the paper how the AI tool was used and which tool was used. Authors are fully responsible for the content of their manuscript, even those parts produced by an AI tool, and are thus liable for any breach of publication ethics. We follow COPE's guidelines and policies regarding the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools
Duties and responsibilities of authors
a) Reporting standards- Original research reports should include a detailed history and objective interpretation of the work. Composition should accurately portray basic data. A document should have enough detail and references to be replicated. False or misleading statements are unethical.
b) Data access and retention - Authors may be asked to provide raw data with a work for editorial review. If practicable, they should allow public access to such data and maintain it for a reasonable time after publication.
c) Timeliness and responsiveness: Authors are responsible for responding to editorial inquiries and revisions in a timely manner, as well as meeting deadlines for revisions and resubmissions.
d) Originality and plagiarism - Writers should create original works and cite or quote others as necessary. Plagiarism involves publishing another's article as one's own, copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another's paper, and claiming others' research results. Piracy is unethical in publication.
e) Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication- The same research should not be published in multiple journals or original publications. Submitting the same work to many journals simultaneously is unethical. Authors should not submit already published papers to other journals.
f) Acknowledgement of sources - Always acknowledge others' work.
g) Authors should cite publications that influenced the study. Without the author's prior consent, no private chat, correspondence, or discussion with third parties may be utilised or reported. Confidential data, such as manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the author's prior permission.
h) Authorship of the paper - Authorship should be limited to those who substantially contributed to the work's conception, invention, implementation, or interpretation. All contributors should be co-authors. Others who contributed to the research project should be credited. The corresponding author should ensure that all eligible co-authors are included in the paper and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final text.
i) Hazards and human or animal subjects- The author must clearly identify any hazardous chemicals, procedures, or equipment. If the work uses animal or human subjects, the author must guarantee that all procedures were performed according to relevant laws and institutional norms and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) approved them. Writers should mention and include evidence of informed consent especially for research participants. Respect privacy and confidentiality of the participants.
j) Disclosure and conflicts of interest- All authors should state any financial or other substantial conflicts of interest that could impact their results or interpretation. All financial support should be cut off.
k) Fundamental errors in published works- Whenever an author discovers a serious error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, he/she must notify the editor and work with him/her to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or publisher learns from a third party that a published study contains a major error, the author must promptly retract or revise the composition or provide evidence of the original composition's accuracy.